Resorption through the oral mucosa
In animal experiments, researchers1) have found that only particles with a maximum of 400 nm and special surface characteristics can pass through the oral mucosa (see figure on the left). The resorption capacity here is about 75%. If the particles are about 0.5 microns, they can only be resorbed to a very small extent. Larger particles cannot be resorbed through the oral mucosa.
APUXAN is, using the ActiveSpray-applicator, sprayed onto the buccal mucosa of the inside of the cheek and under the tongue. Due to the optimised particle size and surface characteristics of APUXAN, its ingredients can quickly reach the underlying tissue layers. Thus, they are not metabolised like conventional powder products by the liver and thus biochemically altered (no first pass effect2)). The ingredients of APUXAN reach to a large extend via the blood vessels of the oral mucosa directly into the superior vena cava and thus into the bloodstream.
Since APUXAN-particles are small enough, Macrophages and dendritic cells in the tissue of the oral mucosa can directly internalise the particles and present them to other cells of the immune system. Thus activated, these immune cells can kill invaders such as viruses, bacteria and fungi more efficiently. Moreover, phagocytes stimulate the expansion of other cell populations in the lymphoid tissues, which can then protect the body effectively against new pathogens in the blood and lymph systems.
APUXAN bypasses, thanks to its unique galenics, the innovative application, and the size and surface characteristics of the particles the first pass-effect2). In the first resorption step through the oral mucosa, the APUXAN-particles are resorbed directly, thus ensuring a rapid effect.
1) J. Reineke et. al, Unique insights into the intestinal absorption, transit and subsequent biodistribution of polymer-derived microspheres, PNAS, August 20, 2013, Vol 110, No. 34, 13803-13808
2) Weakening of the active agent by the metabolism in the liver